In sum, the shaman has to persuade patients and onlookers
through a healing spectacle, and the sick individual has to convince
others of a sick state, incapacity, and a need for care. Both
may have a shared interest in making the healing encounter
appear effective, because it supports the shaman’s claim of expertise
and the patient’s adoption of the sick role. Modern doctors
also act and compete in terms of satisfying expectations and building
community consensus around the sick person’s need for care.